Det är många som är inaktiva och inte kommer igång med att börja träna. Det kan handla om att man inte vet hur, var eller till och med varför man ska träna. Vi har alla olika syn med det här med träning men i grund och botten handlar det om att röra på kroppen, få upp pulsen och förhoppningsvis ha kul under tiden.
Vi tänkte i den här artikeln fördjupa oss lite i pulsträning och dess fördelar. Många hör ordet puls och tänker på tuffa backar, mjölksyra och total utmattning. Så behöver det inte vara. Pulsträning kan även innebära att man håller ett lugnt och behagligt tempo för att uppnå fördelarna med det men mer om det senare.
Vad är då puls?
När hjärtat skickar ut blodet genom artärerna visar det sig som puls på grund av de dunkande blodvågorna. Det ger då ett nästintill exakt mått på kroppens hjärtrytm. En vuxen persons hjärtfrekvens brukar ligga på mellan 60-80 slag per minut i avslappnat läge. En stressad person kan ha något högre antal. För att mäta pulsen kan man hålla fingrarna över handleden och räkna antalet slag under en minut. Ett enklare sätt är att använda sig av en pulsmätare, exempelvis en pulsklocka eller aktivitetsarmband.
Vad innebär pulsträning?
Vid träning använder man pulsen som referens. Precis som vi nämnde tidigare får man en indikation på hur snabbt hjärtat pumpar ut syresatt blod i kroppen. Man brukar prata om maxpuls som ett utgångsläge och det skiljer en del mellan kön och ålder. En formel som man kan använda sig av är:
Män: Maxpuls = 205,8 − (0.685 × ålder)
Kvinnor: Maxpuls = 206 − (0.88 × ålder)
När man känner till sin maxpuls kan man beräkna olika pulszoner och mata in dem i sin pulsklocka. Man brukar ofta dela in pulsen i fem zoner:
Pulszon 1 50-60%: Mycket lätt (återhämtningspass)
Pulszon 2 60-70%: Lätt (lugna pass)
Pulszon 3 70-80%: Medel
Pulszon 4 80-90%: Hårt
Pulszon 5 90-100%: Mycket hårt (hårda pass)
De lågintensiva passen behövs för att kroppen ska vänja sig vid belastning och öka musklernas uthållighet under längre tid. Musklernas mitokondrier, dvs kroppens egna kraftverk, blir fler och större. Dessutom ökar kapillärisering vilket innebär att fler små blodkärl runt varje muskelfiber skapas. Detta leder till att kroppen blir bättre på att använda fett som energikälla och spara på kolhydraterna, vilket är bra när du tränar för att klara av långa lopp.
Träning i zon 2 kännetecknas av ett lugnt och behagligt tempo där du utan problem kan prata med t ex en träningskompis. Orkar du inte prata så är tempot för högt. Ett träningspass i zon 2 kan vara från 60 minuter upp till flera timmar långt.
Ett löppass i den här zonen kan vara 30 till 120 minuter långt. Det känns jobbigare att prata. Ökar grunduthålligheten. Träningen kräver dock längre återhämtning än zon 2 och ger inte träningseffekter som i zon 4.
De högintensiva passen i zon 4, även kallad tröskelträning, syftar till att förbättra syreupptagningsförmågan, dvs din aeroba kapacitet där energi fortfarande framställs med tillgång till syre. Träning i den här zonen förbättrar din kondition, då hjärtat blir starkare och kan pumpa ut mer syrerikt blod per slag till kroppens arbetande muskler. Det här är tuff träning där du belastar det aeroba systemet så mycket det går, utan att kroppen producerar mer mjölksyra än den klarar av att ta hand om. Effekten gör att du på sikt kommer att kunna öka farten i den här pulszonen utan att bli stum i musklerna samtidigt som kroppen även blir bättre på att ”forsla bort” samt återanvända mjölksyran som energi. Träning i zon 4 genomförs ofta i intervallform under ca 30-60 minuter.
Tung träning med mjölksyra i zon 5 ökar uthålligheten och förmågan att skapa och bibehålla fart. Eftersom du tränar över din “tröskelpuls” bildas mjölksyra och benen blir stumma, vilket gör att träningen upplevs mycket ansträngande och kräver lång återhämtning – ca 48 timmar. Effekterna av träning i zon 5 liknar de av zon 4, men eftersom belastningen är högre orkar du inte hålla på lika länge. Den totala träningstiden är ca 10-30 minuter och görs sig bäst i intervallform. Träning i denna zon kräver att du är utvilad inför passet samt att du har en bra träningsbakgrund. Som nybörjare ska du inte träna så här hårt.
Vad skiljer sig mellan tränade och otränade?
Värt att tänka på är att tempot säger väldigt lite om effektiviteten i dina intervaller. Medan en vältränad person kan hålla ett högre tempo men fortfarande ligga på 70% av maxpuls, behöver den som är mindre tränad hålla en lägre takt för att ligga på samma puls. Låt pulsklockan guida dig till rätt nivå utifrån dina förutsättningar och din målsättning. Därför är en pulsklocka något som alla, både nybörjare och erfarna har nytta av i sin träning.
Att ha på sig en snygg klockan under dagen mäter inte bara puls utan även antalet steg och mycket mer. Vi har valt att titta närmare på aktivitetsarmbandet Polar A360 för alla som vill komma igång men inte börja med den allra dyraste och mest avancerade. Vi tycker även att den är riktigt snygg att ha på sig oavsett om man är i löpspåret eller på jobbet. Den ger användaren personligt anpassade tips utifrån mål och förutsättningar. Att ha ett band runt bröstet är inte nödvändigt längre utan du har enbart klockan på armen där den regelbundet läser av pulsen med hjälp av två gröna LED-dioder och en fotodiod. Självklart kan du koppla den till ett pulsbälte med ifall man föredrar det.
Armbandet kopplas enkelt ihop med din telefon och kan exempelvis vibrera när du får telefonsamtal, sms och liknande. En annan funktion är att den kan vibrera lite lätt när du suttit still för länge.
Aldrig förr har det varit lättare och roligare att komma i form så prova gärna att träna pulsbaserat eller varför inte ge bort ett armband till en vän eller din partner i julklapp för att uppmuntra till en mer aktiv livsstil under 2017.
Läs mer om Polar A360 här: polar.com/sv/produkter/sport/A360
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